Batul - to
nullify. Batul refers to a situation when a
small amount of one food is accidentally mixed
into a larger amount of a different food. When
the ratio is one part to 60 parts or less, the
smaller ingredient is generally considered to be
null and void.
Bishul Yisroel to the preparation of
certain foods for which it is necessary for the
Mashgiach to light the fire.
Chodosh literally, new, refers to the
grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye, and spelt) that
has not taken root before Passover. It is called
"new grain." Its consumption may be restricted
until the following Passover.
Cholov Yisroel to all dairy productions,
including cheese and non-fat dry milk powder,
which have been under constant Rabbinical
Fleishig - meat, denotes meat and poultry
products, as well as dishes and utensils used in
Glatt Kosher Glatt is the Yiddish word
meaning smooth, and refers to beef from kosher
slaughtered animals whose lungs are free of
adhesions. Kosher consumers who are very
stringent in accepting only high standards of
kosher, demand that all meat products be "glatt."
The term is often mistakenly used to
differentiate food items which have higher
standards of kashruth from those which have a
more relaxed level of kosher certification.
Halacha literally, the path that one
walks. It refers to Jewish Law, the complete
body of rules and practices that Jews are bound
to follow, including biblical commandments,
directives of the Rabbis, and binding customs.
Hashgacha literally, supervision,
generally refers to kosher supervision.
Hechsher to the certification of a kosher
product or ingredient, given by a Rabbi or a
kosher supervisory agency.
Kasher to make kosher, usually applied to
the salting and soaking procedures used in the
production of kosher meat and poultry. The term
is also used to describe the kosherization
procedure of a non-kosher facility or utensil,
so that it may be used in the preparation of
Kashruth the state of being kosher.
Keilim - vessels or utensils.
Kli Rishon, Kli Sheni, Kli Shlishi
Kli rishon, literally the first utensil, refers
to a utensil that is used for cooking, baking or
roasting food or liquid, and contains that hot
food or liquid. When hot food or liquid is
transferred from the kli rishon into a second
utensil, this utensil is called a kli sheni. A
kli shlishi is the third utensil into which hot
food or liquid is transferred.
Kosher is the Hebrew word meaning fit or
proper, designating foods whose ingredients and
manufacturing procedures comply with Jewish
Kosherization - the process of
changing the status of equipment which had been
used with non-kosher ingredients or products, to
use with kosher ingredients or products.
Mashgiach - one who is trained to
supervise kosher food production.
Mehadrin - to the most stringent
level of kosher supervision.
Mikvah - literally, gathering, refers to
a structure, a ritualarium, in which water is
gathered for purposes of immersion.
Milchig - dairy, refers to dairy products
as well as dishes, utensils, and equipment used
in their preparation.
Mevushal refers to wine which has been
Orla - the Torah commandment to wait for
three years before partaking of any fruit from
fruit-bearing trees. The forbidden fruit of this
period is known as orla.
Pareve - neutral, indicates a product
which contains no derivatives of poultry, meat,
or dairy ingredients and can therefore be eaten
with either a meat, poultry or dairy meal.
Pareve items include all fruits, vegetables,
legumes, grains, eggs, kosher fish, etc.
Pas Yisroel baked goods prepared in ovens
which are turned on by the mashgiach.
Shechita - the Torah prescribed manner of
slaughtering an animal or fowl for consumption.
Shochet - one who is specially trained to
slaughter kosher meat and poultry according to
the Jewish tradition.
Shmitta the agricultural cycle observed
in Israel, in which every seventh year the land
Tevilas Keilim meaning dipping of
utensils, refers to the immersion of vessels,
utensils, or dishes in a ritualarium (mikvah)
before their first use.
Click here for "The Mitzvah of Tevilas Keilim"
Tovel To dip or immerse in a
Traiboring the process of removing
forbidden fats and veins from meat in order to
be prepared for the next stage of kashering,
namely, the salting process.
Click here for "Beware: Glatt May Not Always Be
Treifah - food that is not kosher. The
term is generally used to refer to all foods,
vessels, and utensils that are not kosher.
Literally, it means an animal whose flesh was
torn or ripped.
Yoshon, literally, old, refers to the
grain that has taken root before Pesach, even if
it is harvested after Pesach. It is called "old
grain." It is permitted to be eaten without
restriction. When a product is yoshon, it means
that yoshon grains, including wheat, barley,
oats, rye, spelt, were used in its preparation.
Click here for yoshon articles.
Other Related Jewish Terms
Birkas HaMazon - blessing of the food, commonly
referred to as Grace After Meals. The recitation
of birkas hamazon is called "bentsching" in
Kiddush - sanctification. Kiddush is the prayer
recited over wine sanctifying Shabbos or a Yom
See "Seder" in Passover Terms.
Seuda - a meal, specifically a festive or
Shabbos is the seventh day of the week, which in
the Jewish calendar begins at
sunset on Friday and ends after dark on Saturday
Yom Tov refers to the holidays on the Jewish
calendar. These include: Rosh Hashana (September
or October), Yom Kippur (September or October),
Succos (October), Chanukah (December), Tu
B'Shvat (January or February), Purim (February
or March), Passover (March or April), Shavuot
(May or June) Tisha B'Av (July or August).
Glossary of Passover Terms
Chometz refers to food products containing any
grain (wheat, barley, rye, oats, or spelt) or
grain derivative, not specially prepared for
Chometz gamur, colloquially called "real chometz,"
refers to products containing fermented grains.
These products are biblically prohibited on
Kitniyos - legumes, are those grains that can be
cooked and baked in a fashion similar to chometz
grain and yet are not considered, in the eyes of
halacha, to be in the same category as chometz.
Some examples are rice, corn, peas, mustard
seed, and the whole bean family (i.e. kidney,
lima, garbanzo, etc.). It is customary for Jews
of Ashkenazic descent to refrain from eating
kitniyos on Passover.
Kosher for Passover - foods acceptable
for use during the Passover holiday which
require special preparation. See "chometz".
Matzoh - specially prepared
unleavened bread which is acceptable for
Passover - Pesach in Hebrew - is the Jewish
holiday commemorating the exodus from Egypt,
observed in the spring.
Seder - order. A seder is the
Jewish ritual conducted as part of the
observance of Passover. The Haggada, the text
from which the seder is conducted, contains the
precise order of the prayers, song, discussion,
story-telling, eating of ritual foods and the
Glossary of Ethnic Foods
Throughout history, Jews have lived around the
globe. Consequently, their cuisine reflects the
culinary influences of their host country. For
example, stuffed grape leaves are popular with
Sephardic Jews whose roots are in Middle Eastern
and Mediterranean countries. For Ashkenazic
families who trace their roots to Central and
Eastern Europe, a Shabbos or Yom Tov meal is not
complete without gefilte fish. Lox and bagels, a
popular American combination, was originated by
impoverished Jewish immigrants to these shores
because lox was inexpensive fare.
Therefore, only a few foods actually relate to
Jewish religious ritual. These include matzoh
and charoses which are required eating on
Passover. Wine and challah are essential to the
Shabbos and Yom Tov rituals. Latkes have become
traditional Chanukah foods because they are
fried in oil. In this case, the oil is the
essential ingredient. Some have the custom to
eat donuts (sufganiot in Hebrew), which are also
fried in oil, instead of latkes.
Blintz - a thin crepe-like pancake rolled around
a filling of cheese or fruit.
Borscht - a classic beet soup served hot or
chilled, pureed or chunky.
Challah - a sweet, eggy bread, usually
braided, which is served on Shabbos or Jewish
Charoses - a mixture of fruit, wine and nuts
eaten at the Passover seder meal. This condiment
is symbolic of the mortar used by the Jewish
slaves in Egypt.
Cholent - a slow cooked stew (from the French
chaud - hot/warm and lent -slow) which is served
on Shabbos. Ingredients generally include beef,
vegetables, beans and barley. Since it is not
permitted to light a fire on Shabbos, and since
Jews wanted to eat hot food on Shabbos, cholent
became a popular dish. Cooking starts before
Shabbos begins, and continues on a covered flame
or in a crockpot on Shabbos.
Click here for "Oven Kashrus: For Shabbos Use"
Gefilte Fish - traditionally served on Shabbos,
made with ground or chopped fish and shaped into
balls or a loaf.
Holiptches - stuffed cabbage, a favorite
Kreplach - small squares or circles of rolled
pasta dough filled with ground beef or chicken
and folded into triangles. They can be boiled
and served in soup or fried and served as a side
dish. They are traditionally served at the Erev
Yom Kippur meal as well as on Hoshana Rabbah and
Kugel - a casserole of potatoes, noodles or
vegetables in an egg based pudding. Kugel is a
traditional dish served on Shabbos or Yom Tov.
Latke - a potato pancake, fried in oil,
traditionally eaten during Chanukah.
Matzoh See "Matzoh" in Passover Terms.
Tzimmes Tzimmes - a sweet stew containing